But the country’s officials were buoyant, releasing footage showing their forces burning Russian flags and inspecting abandoned charred tanks. In one video, border guards tore down a poster that read “We are one people with Russia”.
Momentum has switched back and forth before, and Ukraine’s American allies, for one, were careful not to declare a premature victory since Russian President Vladimir Putin still has troops and resources to tap.
Still, the Kremlin struggled to respond to the defeat, its largest since its forces abandoned a botched attempt to capture Kyiv early in the war.
Late Monday, President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said his troops have retaken more than 6000 square kilometres — an area more than twice the size of Luxembourg — in a matter of weeks.
“The movement of our troops continues,” he said.
Among the latest claims, Ukraine’s border guard services said the army took control of Vovchansk — a town just 3 kilometres from Russia seized on the first day of the war.
While every individual claim of military success could not be verified, Russia acknowledged that it has withdrawn troops from areas in the north-eastern region of Kharkiv in recent days.
Reports of chaos abounded as Russian troops pulled out — as well as claims that they were surrendering en masse. Ukraine officials have said they have captured so many soldiers that they are struggling to house them. The claim could not be immediately verified.
Ukrainian Deputy Minister of Defence Hanna Maliar said Kyiv is trying to persuade even more Russian soldiers to give up, launching shells filled with flyers ahead of their advance.
“Russians use you as cannon fodder. Your life doesn’t mean anything for them. You don’t need this war. Surrender to Armed Forces of Ukraine,” the flyers read.
In one indication of the blow sustained by Moscow, British intelligence said that one premier force, the 1st Guards Tank Army, had been “severely degraded” during the invasion.
“Russia’s conventional force designed to counter NATO is severely weakened. It will likely take years for Russia to rebuild this capability,” it said.
The retreat didn’t stop Russia from pounding Ukrainian positions, however. Early Tuesday, it shelled the city of Lozova in the Kharkiv region, killing three people and injuring nine, said regional governor Oleh Syniehubov.
And Ukrainian officials said Russia kept up shelling around Europe’s largest nuclear facility, where fighting has raised fears of a nuclear disaster.
The Nikopol area, which is across the Dnieper River from the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant, was shelled six times during the night but no injuries were immediately reported, said regional governor Valentyn Reznichenko.
Strikes have also continued unabated on the city of Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest and one that has been hammered by artillery for months.
Zelenskyy specifically criticised Russia for targeting energy infrastructure in its attacks over the past days.
“Hundreds and thousands of Ukrainians found themselves in the dark — without electricity. Houses, hospitals, schools, communal infrastructure … sites that have absolutely nothing to do with the infrastructure of the armed forces of our country,” he said.
He said it was a sign of the “desperation of those who contrived this war”.
“This is how they react to the defeat of Russian forces in the Kharkiv region. They can’t do anything to our heroes on the battlefield.”
The counteroffensive has provoked rare public criticism of Putin’s war within Russia. Meanwhile, some of its defenders in Russia played down the idea that the success belonged to Ukraine, blaming instead Western weapons and fighters for the losses.
“It’s not Ukraine that attacked Izium, but NATO,” read a headline in the state-supported Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper, referring to one of the areas where Russia said it has withdrawn troops.
Elsewhere, residents of a Russian village just across the border from Ukraine were evacuated after shelling by Ukrainian troops killed one person, according to Russia’s Tass news agency.
The report cited the head of the local administration in Logachevka, who said Ukrainian troops opened fire at a border checkpoint.